Much of the lineage provided before Ma’ad relies on biblical genealogy and therefore questions persist concerning the accuracy of this segment of Arab genealogy [1] The general consensus among 14th century Arabic genealogists[who?] is that Arabs are of three kinds:
Al-Arab al-Ba’ida (Arabic: العرب البائدة‎), “The Extinct Arabs”, were an ancient group of tribes of pre-history, that included the ‘Aad, the Thamud, the Tasm, the Jadis, the Imlaq (who included branches of Banu al-Samayda) and others. The Jadis and the Tasm are said to have been exterminated by genocide.[citation needed] The Qur’an records that disappearance of the 'Aad and Thamud came of their decadence. Recent archaeological excavations have uncovered inscriptions which reference 'Iram, once a major city of the 'Aad.
The Arab genealogies accord the original pure Arabs, “Al-Arab al-Ariba” (العرب العاربة), came from Yemen and were descended from Ya‘rub bin Yashjub bin Qahtan, a descendant of hud and were Qahtanite Arabs.[2][3]
According to this tradition, ‘Adnani Arabs (العرب المستعربة) were the progeny of Ishmael, the firstborn son of the patriarch Abraham, of the Jurhum tribe. The Hawazin tribe and Muhammad are considered ‘Adnani Arabs.[citation needed]
Some modern historians question the traditional distinction between Adnanites and Qahtanites, suggesting later tribal faction-fighting during the Umayyad period may have given rise to the narrative.[4]